What is the difference between waterfall and agile model

Difference between waterfall and agile model:

agile vs waterfall model

Waterfall- Deadlines are fixed of the project delivery.
Agile- Fast  and flexibility of the dead-line

What is Agile Model?

Agile Model-(Fast and Flexible)

1. Agile model is Fast and flexible.
2. In which projects deadline are flexible.
3. It promotes adaptive planning, evolutionary development, early delivery, continuous improvement, and encourages rapid and flexible response to change.
4. Development and testing activities are concurrent.
5. This model promotes continuous iteration of development and testing throughout the software development life cycle of the project.


1.Project Requirement- To take the understanding of the project & project module.
2. Stories- To makes the stories as per discussion with the client and Team.
3. Test Cases- To makes the test scenarios as per requirement.  
4. Tasks- 
To make the tasks of the project module in which we are broken the module into the small part and estimate the time and assign to the developer team.
5. Iteration- In which we are following the cycle ( planning, developing & Testing)
6. Acceptance Testing- In which testing to be done at client end site.

Scrum-It is agile development method which mainly focus on the task how to manage it in the team. In scrum technique, test must be broken down so that they can be completed within one sprint. It has three roles-

  1. Scrum Master- It is responsible for setting up the team, sprint meeting and removes the queries of the Team.
  2. Product owner- It is responsible for the delivery of the functionality at each iteration.
  3. Scrum Team-Team manages its own work and organizes the work to complete the sprint or cycle.

Sprint- Each iteration of a scrum is known as Sprint.

Agile Work flow

Burn Down Chart- Burn chart shows the graph between the completed task and remaining task statistics.



Advantages of Agile model:

1. Customer,developer and tester continuously interacted to each other
2. Rapidly customer satisfaction and continuous delivery of the software.
3. Regular adaptation to changing circumstances.
4. Between the development changes in requirements are easily handled.
5. Face-to-face conversation between the customer,developer and tester.
6. Working software is delivered frequently (weeks rather than months).
7. Close, daily cooperation between business people and developers

Disadvantages of Agile model:

1. Difficult to Assess the Effort Required at the Beginning of the Software Development Life Cycle
2. Can be Very Demanding on the Users Time
3. Costs can Increase as Testers Required all the Time Instead of at the End
4. The project can easily get taken off track if the customer representative is not clear what final outcome that they want.



What is test script,Risk Based Testing, Defect Clustering, Exploratory Testing,Software Configuration Management,Code Walk Through and Scalability Testing?

1. What is the Process for creating a test script?

Step 1 – Thorough understanding of Project.

  1. Reading the requirement documents thoroughly
  2. In absence of docs, we could try to understand the any point of reference that we have – a previous version of the application or wire-frames or screenshots

Step 2 – Find the all areas that will be tested.

After understanding the requirements, we make a list of what are the areas in this application that will be have to be tested. In other words, we identify the test requirements. The focus in this step is to identify “What” to test.

Step 3 – Once We have the test scenarios, planning how to test them,  how to test a particular feature, what data to enter (test data) and what is the expected result.

Once we have the test scenarios, we concentrate next on “How” to test them.  This phase involves writing detailed steps about how to test a particular feature, what data to enter (test data) and what is the expected result.

Once these 3 steps are done, we are ready for testing.

2. What is the most challenging situation you had during testing?

Ans- If you came across any such a situation and found any interesting Bug that was difficult to find out or analyzed any project risk accurately before occurring then this could be the answer to this question.

3. What is Risk Based Testing?

Ans- Identifying the critical functionality in the system then deciding the orders in which these functionality to be tested and applying testing.

4. What is Defect Clustering?

Ans- Any small module or functionality may contain more number of defects – concentrate more testing on these functionality.

5. What is Exploratory Testing?

Ans. Exploring the application, understanding the functionality, adding (or) modifying existing test cases for better testing is called exploratory testing.

6.  What is Software Configuration Management?

Ans. The process of identifying, Organizing and controlling changes to software development and maintenance.
A methodology to control and manage a software development project

7. What is Code Walk Through?

Ans. Informal analysis of the program source code to find defects and verify coding techniques.

8. What is Scalability Testing?

Scalability testing is done using load test by changing various software, hardware configurations and testing environment.

9. What is Difference between QA, QC and testing?

Ans. QA?
It is process oriented
Aim is to prevent defects in an application

Set of activities used to evaluate a developed work product
It is product oriented

Executing and verifying application with the intention of finding defects

What is V-model and advantages and disadvantages of this model

What is V-model ?

– V- model means Verification and Validation model.
– Each phase must be completed before the next phase begins.
– Testing of the product is planned in parallel with a corresponding phase of development.

V- Model Design and Flow-

V model has the different phases as shown in the above diagram.

Advantages of V-model:

  • Simple and easy to use.
  • Testing activities like planning test designing happens well before coding. This saves a lot of time. Hence higher chance of success over the waterfall model.
  • Proactive defect tracking – that is defects are found at early stage.
  • Avoids the downward flow of the defects.
  • Works well for small projects where requirements are easily understood.

Disadvantages of V-model:

  • Very rigid and least flexible.
  • Software is developed during the implementation phase, so no early prototypes of the software are produced.
  • If any changes happen in midway, then the test documents along with requirement documents has to be updated.


What is Spiral model and what is advantage and disadvantage of this model?

What is Spiral model?

  • Spiral model is a combination of sequential and prototype model.
  • This model is best used for large projects which involves continuous enhancements.
Spiral Model design and flow-

The spiral model has four phases.

  1. Planning phase
  2. Risk analysis phase
  3. Engineering phase
  4. Evaluation phase.

1. Planning Phase:

  • Requirements are gathered and analysis.
  • Doing feasibility study
  • Developed the Requirements like ‘BRS’ that is ‘Business Requirement Specifications’ and ‘SRS’ that is ‘System Requirement specifications’.

2. Risk Analysis:

  • To identify risk and alternate solutions.
  • If any risk is found during the risk analysis then alternate solutions are suggested and implemented.

3. Engineering Phase:

  • Development and testing of the software takes place in this phase.

4. Evaluation phase:

  • Customers evaluate the software and provide their feedback and approval


Advantages of Spiral model:

  • High amount of risk analysis hence, avoidance of Risk is enhanced.
  • Good for large and mission-critical projects.
  • Strong approval and documentation control.
  • Additional Functionality can be added at a later date.
  • Software is produced early in the software life cycle.

Disadvantages of Spiral model:

  • Can be a costly model to use.
  • Risk analysis requires highly specific expertise.
  • Project’s success is highly dependent on the risk analysis phase.
  • Doesn’t work well for smaller projects.